Prereration of manuscript


JEB has restrictions on the length of manuscripts, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. The text, therefore, has a minimum of only 4,000 words and does not exceed approximately 6,000 words. Manuscripts should be written and typed in English. All manuscripts should contain at least 3 keywords; and have an abstract of from 150 to 250 words.

Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to “the text”. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its separate line.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.


Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described


A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.


Results should be clear and concise.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. It is similar for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page 

  • Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Authornames and  Please clearly indicate the given name (s) and family name (s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address, hand phone number of the corresponding author.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author (s) and year (s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract must have a limit of 150-250 words.

Writing an abstract

Writing an abstract can be difficult because you are tasked with condensing tons of work into such a small amount of space. Remember the abstracts you have ever read? What made you read the papers? What made you not to read the papers? Ask yourself these questions when writing an abstract.

When writing an abstract, you should focus on:

  • What your research is about
  • What methods have been used
  • What you found out

Tips for writing an abstract

  1. Your abstract must have a minimum of 150 words and a maximum of 250 words.
  2. Make sure that your abstract is self-contained, without abbreviations, footnotes, or incomplete references.
  3. It should be a concise summary that makes sense on its own.
  4. There is a significant difference between original research papers and review papers when it comes to abstracts.
  • For original papers, you should describe your method and procedures.
  • For reviews, you should first state the primary objective of the review, the reasoning behind your choice, the main outcomes and results of your review, and the conclusions that might be drawn, including their implications for further research, application, or practice.

Abstract checklist

  • Have you clearly summarized the article?
  • Have you included your keywords?
  • Does it encourage researchers to read on?
  • Does it fit within the word count?
  • Is it easy to understand without any prior knowledge of the topic?

Please see two examples here.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a minimum of 3 keywords, and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”).


Abbreviations must be defined at their first mention there and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references. List here those individuals who provided help during the research.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the article by using the automatic function of creating footnotes at the end of a page. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing (Times New Roman and the font size of 10 is recommended) of your original artwork.
  • Illustrations must be of high resolution, clear, with monochrome. With charts, it is recommended to use symbols (instead of colors) for a caption.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately right beneath the illustrations (not attached to the figure) and state their originality.


  • Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.
  • Number tables consecutively following their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body.
  • Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
  • Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list, they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as “in press” implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is:

Buckley, P. J., Tian, X. (2017). Internalization Theory and the Performance of Emerging-market Multinational Enterprises. International Business Review26(5), 976-990.

Reference webs 

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

How should a manuscript be styled?

JEB applies the referencing style of APA. For more details, please see

Text: Indicate the author name (s) and publication year (s) in parentheses.

Example: “... as demonstrated (Buckley and Tian, 2017). Barkema and Vermeulen (1998) obtained a different result...”

References: The list of references is prioritized in alphabetical order, then in chronological order if necessary. Multiple documents from the same author(s) within the same year must be identified by the letters “a”, “b”, “c”… after the year of publication. Vietnamese documents must be translated into English.


  • Reference to a journal publication with an article number: Author name (year), article title, journal title (italic), volume (italic) (issue), pp, DOI (if any). For example:

Barkema, H. G., Vermeulen, F. (1998). International Expansion through Start-up or Acquisition: A Learning Perspective. Academy of Management Journal41(1), 7-26.

  • Reference to a book: Author name (year), book title, publisher. For example:

The Communist Party of Vietnam (2015). Report on Theoretical and Practical in 30 Years of Doi Moi (1986-2016). National Publishing House, Hanoi (in Vietnamese).

  • Reference to a book chapter: Author name (year), chapter title, editor in chief’s name, book title, pp, publisher. For example:

Mettam, G. R., Adams, L. B. (2009). How to Prepare an Electronic Version of Your Article? In Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age (pp. 281-304)E-Publishing Inc.

  • Reference to a website: Author name, publication title, date of publication, links, date of access. For example:

APEC (2022). APEC Trade Facilitation. <> Accessed 20.10.2020.

  • Reference to a conference: Author name (year), publication title, title of the conference, place of publication. For example:

Evans, A. C. et al. (2019, August 8-11). Gun Violence: An Event on the Power of Community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States.

Reference management software

JEB appreciates popular reference management software programs such as Mendeley, Zotero, Citavi, EndNote, the Citations & Bibliography function in Word... When using these software programs, the author only selects the appropriate referencing style of APA when writing his/her manuscript, then the citations and bibliographies are automatically formatted according to the journal's specifications.